The U.S. electric grid is actually two giant, continent-spanning networks, plus a third, smaller network in Texas, that connect power sources and consumers via transmission lines.
Avoiding the use of metals in the electrodes is a huge advantage for dual-ion batteries and makes them much more sustainable, Ji said.
South Africa has the one of the highest solar indexes in the world, only behind the likes of the Mojave desert in the USA and Namibia.
In 2009, the United States and India launched the Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE) to support research and deployment of clean energy technologies.
Taken together, smart grid and intelligent buildings mechanisms could reduce national carbon emissions by 12 percent by 2030, according to one estimate.
Prizes of $25,000 will be awarded to the top early-stage, startup companies in Smart Grid and Smart Cities categories